A Case Report
AUDIENCE: Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: This case report highlights the conservative treatment of isolated cricoid cartilage fracture in the setting of low-energy blunt trauma. The patient was clinically stable and treated conservatively with oxygen therapy and silence therapy (complete silence).
BACKGROUND: Blunt trauma to the anterior of the neck may compromise the vital structures like major blood vessels, trachea, larynx, pharynx, thyroid, spine, esophagus, and the cricoid. Laryngeal trauma is rare and accounts for 1% of all neck blunt traumas. Cricoid trauma is also very rare and accounts for half of the laryngeal traumas, and the diagnosis is frequently missed.
DETAILS: A 43-year-old man, with blunt neck trauma after being hardly hit by a crane lifting hook, was referred to the Shahid Beheshti Hospital. The patient complained of dysphonia (hoarseness) and dyspnea. The CT scans showed a comminuted fracture of the left anterior arch of the cricoid cartilage with left-sided mucosal thickening, inflammation, and edema which was extended to the glottis, causing a narrowing of the airway. Direct fiber-optic laryngoscopy revealed swelling and congestion in the epiglottis and swelling at the level of the left vocal cord.
Copyright © BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. All rights reserved.
Source: Mehrabi, S., Hosseinpour, R., and Barhaghtalab, M. J. (2022). Isolated Comminuted Fracture Of The Cricoid Cartilage and Narrowing Of The Airway After A Traumatic Blunt Injury Of The Neck: A Case Report. Int J Emerg Med. 2022; 15:55. Published: November, 2022. DOI: 10.1186/s12245-022-00459-9.
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: The present analysis of the REVASC-TAVI registry showed that, among TAVI patients with significant stable CAD found during the TAVI work-up, completeness of myocardial revascularization achieved either staged or concomitantly with TAVI was similar to a strategy of incomplete revascularization in reducing the risk of all cause death, as well as the risk of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for heart failure at 2 years, regardless of the clinical and anatomical situations.
BACKGROUND: The best management of stable coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is still unclear due to the marked inconsistency of the available evidence.
DETAILS: The REVASC-TAVI registry (Management of Myocardial Revascularization in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With Coronary Artery Disease) collected data from 30 centers worldwide on patients undergoing TAVI who had significant, stable CAD at preprocedural work-up. For the purposes of this analysis, patients with either complete or incomplete myocardial revascularization were compared in a propensity score matched analysis, to take into account of baseline confounders. The primary and co-primary outcomes were all-cause death and the composite of all-cause death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for heart failure, respectively, at 2 years. Among 2407 patients enrolled, 675 pairs of patients achieving complete or incomplete myocardial revascularization were matched. The primary (21.6% versus 18.2%, hazard ratio‚ 0.88 [95% CI, 0.66-1.18]; P=0.38) and co-primary composite (29.0% versus 27.1%, hazard ratio‚ 0.97 [95% CI, 0.76-1.24]; P=0.83) outcome did not differ between patients achieving complete or incomplete myocardial revascularization, respectively. These results were consistent across different prespecified subgroups of patients (< or >75 years of age, Society of Thoracic Surgeons score > or <4%, angina at baseline, diabetes, left ventricular ejection fraction > or <40%, New York Heart Association class I/II or III/IV, renal failure, proximal CAD, multivessel CAD, and left main/proximal anterior descending artery CAD; all P values for interaction >0.10).
Copyright © American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Costa, G., Pilgrim, T., Santos, I. J. A., et al. (2022). Management of Myocardial Revascularization in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions. 2022; 15(12). Published: December, 2022. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.122.012417.
Comparative Cross-Sectional Study In Dutch General Practice
AUDIENCE: Family Medicine, Neurology
KEY FINDINGS: This study identified a younger onset of chronic illness and a higher prevalence of multiple comorbidities among people with ID in general practice than those without ID. This underlines the complexity of people with ID and chronic diseases in general practice. As this study confirmed the earlier onset of chronic diseases and comorbidities, it is recommended to acknowledge these age differences when following chronic disease guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Chronic disease and comorbidity patterns in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more complex than in the general population. However, incomplete understanding of these differences limits care providers in addressing them. Aim of this study is to compare chronic disease and comorbidity patterns in chronically ill patients with and without ID in Dutch general practice.
DETAILS: In this population-based study, a multi-regional primary care database of 2018 was combined with national population data to improve identification of adults with ID. Prevalence was calculated using Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest-impact chronic diseases (ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and comorbidities. Information from 18,114 people with ID and 1,093,995 people without ID was available. When considering age and sex, CVD (PR = 1.1), DM (PR = 1.6), and COPD (PR = 1.5) times more prevalent in people with than without ID. At younger age, people with ID more often had a chronic disease and multiple comorbidities. Males with ID most often had a chronic disease and multiple comorbidities. Comorbidities of circulatory nature were most common.
Copyright © Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Source: van den Bemd, M., Schalk, B. W. M., Bischoff, E. W. M. A., et al. (2022). Chronic Diseases and Comorbidities In Adults With and Without Intellectual Disabilities: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study In Dutch General Practice. Family Practice. 2022; 39 (6): 1056-1062. Published: December, 2022. DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmac042.
A Propensity-Adjusted Large-Scale Claims Dataset Analysis
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
BACKGROUND: Impella was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2015 for use during high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs); however, its safety and efficacy compared with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has not been evaluated in contemporary practice and remains debated. Study was aimed to compare postapproval outcomes and costs of Impella versus IABP support for high-risk PCI in real-world practice across hospitals in the United States.
DETAILS: Patients were identified from the Premier Healthcare Database undergoing nonemergent Impella- or IABP-supported high-risk PCI. Used propensity adjustment to control baseline, procedure, and post-PCI medical treatment differences between treatment groups. Patients undergoing nonemergent single-PCI procedures with either Impella or IABP support were included and excluded patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction or cardiogenic shock or requiring >1 mechanical support devices during index hospitalization. Outcomes included in-hospital survival, myocardial infarction (MI), cardiogenic shock, stroke, bleeding requiring transfusion, acute kidney injury, index hospitalization length of stay, and costs. From April 2016 to June 2019, a total of 48,179 patients were treated with Impella or IABP mechanical circulatory support at 304 hospitals in the United States. Among these, we identified 2,156 patients undergoing nonemergent high-risk PCI treated with Impella (n = 1,447) or IABP (n = 709). After propensity adjustment, Impella use was associated with improved survival (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 2.36) and less MI (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.46) and cardiogenic shock (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.74). Stroke, bleeding requiring transfusion, and acute kidney injury were similar between groups. In conclusion, this Premier Healthcare Database propensity-adjusted analysis, Impella use during nonemergent high-risk PCI was associated with improved survival and reduced in-hospital MI and cardiogenic shock compared with IABP.
Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Lansky, A. J., Tirziu, D., Moses, J. W., et al. (2022). Impella Versus Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump for High-Risk PCI: A Propensity-Adjusted Large-Scale Claims Dataset Analysis. Am J Cardiol.. 2022; 145: 29-36. Published: December 15, 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.08.032.
An Observational Study In Patients With Suspected Or Confirmed COVID-19 Infection.
AUDIENCE: Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Care needs to be taken in interpreting pulse oximetry measurements in patients with lower systolic and diastolic BPs, and HRs, as oxygen saturation is overestimated as BP and HR decrease. Confirmation of the oxygen saturation with an ABG may be appropriate in some clinical scenarios.
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximeters are a standard non-invasive tool to measure blood oxygen levels, and are used in multiple healthcare settings. It is important to understand the factors affecting their accuracy to be able to use them optimally and safely. This analysis aimed to explore the association of the measurement error of pulse oximeters with systolic BP, diastolic BP and heart rate (HR) within ranges of values commonly observed in clinical practice.
DETAILS: The study design was a retrospective observational study of all patients admitted to a large teaching hospital with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection from February 2020 to December 2021. Data on systolic and diastolic BPs and HR levels were available from the same time period as the pulse oximetry measurements. Data were available for 3420 patients with 5927 observations of blood oxygen saturations as measured by pulse oximetry and ABG sampling within 30 min. The difference in oxygen saturation using the paired pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation difference measurements was inversely associated with systolic BP, increasing by 0.02% with each mm Hg decrease in systolic BP (95% CI 0.00% to 0.03%) over a range of 80–180 mm Hg. Inverse associations were also observed between the error for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry and with both diastolic BP (+0.03%; 95% CI 0.00% to 0.05%) and HR (+0.04%; 95% CI 0.02% to 0.06% for each unit decrease in the HR).
Copyright © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and the College of Emergency Medicine. All rights reserved.
Source: Crooks, C. J., West, J., Morling, J., et al. (2022). Inverse Association Between Blood Pressure And Pulse Oximetry Accuracy: An Observational Study In Patients With Suspected Or Confirmed COVID-19 Infection. Emergency Medicine Journal . Published: December, 2022. DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2022-212443.
AUDIENCE: Cardiology, Emergency Medicine
KEY FINDINGS: Patients with SCAD presenting the BKL angiographic pattern are more frequently female and present more often as intramural hematoma with longer lesions and severe vessel tortuosity but have better coronary flow. Patients with the BKL morphology have a favorable prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography remains the best diagnostic tool; however, clinical suspicion and experience is required to interpret angiographic findings.
DETAILS: This study sought to assess the clinical implications of the "broken line"”" (BKL) angiographic pattern in a large, nationwide, cohort of patients with SCAD. The Spanish SCAD registry prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with SCAD. All angiograms were centrally analyzed and the BKL pattern was systematically assessed. The BKL angiographic pattern was found in 64 of 389 patients (16%). Patients with the BKL appearance were more frequently female (97 vs 87%, p <0.05), presented more often as intramural hematoma (83 vs 58%, p <0.001), had longer lesions (47 ± 29 vs 36 ± 22 mm, p <0.01), and had severe tortuosity (25 vs 10%, p <0.01) but showed better initial coronary flow (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 2.6 ± 0.8 vs 2.1 ± 1.2, p <0.01). Patients with BKL received more frequently conservative medical management (91 vs 76%, p <0.01). At late clinical follow-up (median 29 months, interquartile range 17 to 38) predefined adverse events (death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, recurrent SCAD, or stroke) occurred less frequently (3.5 vs 15%, p <0.05) in patients with the BKL appearance. The better clinical outcomes of patients in the BKL group persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio 0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 0.9, p <0.05).
Copyright © Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Source: Alfonso, F., Sanz-Ruiz, R., Sabate, M., et al. (2022). Clinical Implications of the "Broken Line" Angiographic Pattern in Patients With Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection. Am J Cardiol.. 2022; 185: 1-9. Published: December 15, 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.09.017.